J Clin Monit Comput - Monitoring of breathing phases using a bioacoustic method in healthy awake subjects.


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JECTIVE: To test the ability of a microphone recording system, located distal to the respiratory outflow tract, to track the timing of the inspiratory and expiratory phases of breathing in awake healthy subjects.METHODS: Fifteen subjects participated. Breath sounds were recorded using a microphone embedded in a face frame in a fixed location in relation to the nostrils and mouth, while simultaneously recording respiratory movements by respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP). Subjects were studied while supine and were instructed to breathe normally for 2?min: through their noses only (nasal breathing), during the first?min, and through their mouths only (oral breathing) during the second?min. Five subjects (test group) were chosen randomly to extract features from their acoustic data. Ten breaths (5 nasal and 5 oral breaths) from each subject were studied. Inspiratory and expiratory segments of breath sounds were determined and extracted from the acoustic data by comparing it to the RIP trace. Subsequently, the frequency spectrum of each phase was then determined. Spectral variables derived from the 5 test subjects were applied prospectively to detect breathing phases in the remaining 10 subjects (validation group).RESULTS: Test group data showed that the mean of all inspiratory spectra peaked between 30 and 270?Hz, flattened between 300 and 1,100?Hz, and peaked again with a center frequency of 1,400?Hz. The expiratory spectra peaked between 30 and 180?Hz and its power dropped off exponentially after that. Accordingly, the bands ratio (BR) of frequency magnitudes between 500 and 2500?Hz to frequency magnitudes between 0 and 500?Hz was chosen as a feature to distinguish between breathing phases. BR for the mean inspiratory spectrum was 2.27 and for the mean expiratory spectrum was 0.15. The route of breathing did not affect the BR ratio within the same phase. When this BR was applied to 436 breathing phases in the validation group, 424 (97%) were correctly identified (Kappa?=?0.96, P<0.001) indicating strong agreement between the acoustic method and the RIP.CONCLUSION: Frequency spectra of breathing sounds recorded from a face-frame, reliably identified the inspiratory and expiratory phases of breathing. This technique may have various applications for respiratory monitoring and analysis.

Resumo Limpo

jectiv test abil microphon record system locat distal respiratori outflow tract track time inspiratori expiratori phase breath awak healthi subjectsmethod fifteen subject particip breath sound record use microphon embed face frame fix locat relat nostril mouth simultan record respiratori movement respiratori induct plethysmographi rip subject studi supin instruct breath normal min nose nasal breath firstmin mouth oral breath secondmin five subject test group chosen random extract featur acoust data ten breath nasal oral breath subject studi inspiratori expiratori segment breath sound determin extract acoust data compar rip trace subsequ frequenc spectrum phase determin spectral variabl deriv test subject appli prospect detect breath phase remain subject valid groupresult test group data show mean inspiratori spectra peak hz flatten hz peak center frequenc hz expiratori spectra peak hz power drop exponenti accord band ratio br frequenc magnitud hz frequenc magnitud hz chosen featur distinguish breath phase br mean inspiratori spectrum mean expiratori spectrum rout breath affect br ratio within phase br appli breath phase valid group correct identifi kappa p indic strong agreement acoust method ripconclus frequenc spectra breath sound record facefram reliabl identifi inspiratori expiratori phase breath techniqu may various applic respiratori monitor analysi

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