Artif Intell Med - Channel selection and classification of electroencephalogram signals: an artificial neural network and genetic algorithm-based approach.


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JECTIVE: An electroencephalogram-based (EEG-based) brain-computer-interface (BCI) provides a new communication channel between the human brain and a computer. Amongst the various available techniques, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are well established in BCI research and have numerous successful applications. However, one of the drawbacks of conventional ANNs is the lack of an explicit input optimization mechanism. In addition, results of ANN learning are usually not easily interpretable. In this paper, we have applied an ANN-based method, the genetic neural mathematic method (GNMM), to two EEG channel selection and classification problems, aiming to address the issues above.METHODS AND MATERIALS: Pre-processing steps include: least-square (LS) approximation to determine the overall signal increase/decrease rate; locally weighted polynomial regression (Loess) and fast Fourier transform (FFT) to smooth the signals to determine the signal strength and variations. The GNMM method consists of three successive steps: (1) a genetic algorithm-based (GA-based) input selection process; (2) multi-layer perceptron-based (MLP-based) modelling; and (3) rule extraction based upon successful training. The fitness function used in the GA is the training error when an MLP is trained for a limited number of epochs. By averaging the appearance of a particular channel in the winning chromosome over several runs, we were able to minimize the error due to randomness and to obtain an energy distribution around the scalp. In the second step, a threshold was used to select a subset of channels to be fed into an MLP, which performed modelling with a large number of iterations, thus fine-tuning the input/output relationship. Upon successful training, neurons in the input layer are divided into four sub-spaces to produce if-then rules (step 3). Two datasets were used as case studies to perform three classifications. The first data were electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings that have been used in the BCI competition III. The data belonged to two categories, imagined movements of either a finger or the tongue. The data were recorded using an 8 ? 8 ECoG platinum electrode grid at a sampling rate of 1000 Hz for a total of 378 trials. The second dataset consisted of a 32-channel, 256 Hz EEG recording of 960 trials where participants had to execute a left- or right-hand button-press in response to left- or right-pointing arrow stimuli. The data were used to classify correct/incorrect responses and left/right hand movements.RESULTS: For the first dataset, 100 samples were reserved for testing, and those remaining were for training and validation with a ratio of 90%:10% using K-fold cross-validation. Using the top 10 channels selected by GNMM, we achieved a classification accuracy of 0.80 ? 0.04 for the testing dataset, which compares favourably with results reported in the literature. For the second case, we performed multi-time-windows pre-processing over a single trial. By selecting 6 channels out of 32, we were able to achieve a classification accuracy of about 0.86 for the response correctness classification and 0.82 for the actual responding hand classification, respectively. Furthermore, 139 regression rules were identified after training was completed.CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that GNMM is able to perform effective channel selections/reductions, which not only reduces the difficulty of data collection, but also greatly improves the generalization of the classifier. An important step that affects the effectiveness of GNMM is the pre-processing method. In this paper, we also highlight the importance of choosing an appropriate time window position.

Resumo Limpo

jectiv electroencephalogrambas eegbas braincomputerinterfac bci provid new communic channel human brain comput amongst various avail techniqu artifici neural network ann well establish bci research numer success applic howev one drawback convent ann lack explicit input optim mechan addit result ann learn usual easili interpret paper appli annbas method genet neural mathemat method gnmm two eeg channel select classif problem aim address issu abovemethod materi preprocess step includ leastsquar ls approxim determin overal signal increasedecreas rate local weight polynomi regress loess fast fourier transform fft smooth signal determin signal strength variat gnmm method consist three success step genet algorithmbas gabas input select process multilay perceptronbas mlpbase model rule extract base upon success train fit function use ga train error mlp train limit number epoch averag appear particular channel win chromosom sever run abl minim error due random obtain energi distribut around scalp second step threshold use select subset channel fed mlp perform model larg number iter thus finetun inputoutput relationship upon success train neuron input layer divid four subspac produc ifthen rule step two dataset use case studi perform three classif first data electrocorticographi ecog record use bci competit iii data belong two categori imagin movement either finger tongu data record use ecog platinum electrod grid sampl rate hz total trial second dataset consist channel hz eeg record trial particip execut left righthand buttonpress respons left rightpoint arrow stimuli data use classifi correctincorrect respons leftright hand movementsresult first dataset sampl reserv test remain train valid ratio use kfold crossvalid use top channel select gnmm achiev classif accuraci test dataset compar favour result report literatur second case perform multitimewindow preprocess singl trial select channel abl achiev classif accuraci respons correct classif actual respond hand classif respect furthermor regress rule identifi train completedconclus demonstr gnmm abl perform effect channel selectionsreduct reduc difficulti data collect also great improv general classifi import step affect effect gnmm preprocess method paper also highlight import choos appropri time window posit

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