J. Med. Internet Res. - Changes in depressive symptoms, social support, and loneliness over 1 year after a minimum 3-month videoconference program for older nursing home residents.


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CKGROUND: A 3-month videoconference interaction program with family members has been shown to decrease depression and loneliness in nursing home residents. However, little is known about the long-term effects on residents' depressive symptoms, social support, and loneliness.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this longitudinal quasi-experimental study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of a videoconference intervention in improving nursing home residents' social support, loneliness, and depressive status over 1 year.METHODS: We purposively sampled 16 nursing homes in various areas of Taiwan. Elderly residents (N = 90) of these nursing homes meeting our inclusion criteria were divided into an experimental (n = 40) and a comparison (n = 50) group. The experimental group received at least 5 minutes/week for 3 months of videoconference interaction with their family members in addition to usual family visits, and the comparison group received regular family visits only. Data were collected in face-to face interviews on social support, loneliness, and depressive status using the Social Support Behaviors Scale, University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale, and Geriatric Depression Scale, respectively, at four times (baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after baseline). Data were analyzed using the generalized estimating equation approach.RESULTS: After the videoconferencing program, participants in the experimental group had significantly lower mean change in instrumental social support scores at 6 months (-0.42, P = .03) and 12 months (-0.41, P = .03), and higher mean change in emotional social support at 3 (0.74, P < .001) and 12 months (0.61, P = .02), and in appraisal support at 3 months (0.74, P = .001) after adjusting for confounding variables. Participants in the experimental group also had significantly lower mean loneliness and depressive status scores at 3 months (-5.40, P < .001; -2.64, P < .001, respectively), 6 months (-6.47, P < .001; -4.33, P < .001), and 12 months (-6.27, P = .001; -4.40, P < .001) compared with baseline than those in the comparison group.CONCLUSION: Our videoconference program had a long-term effect in alleviating depressive symptoms and loneliness for elderly residents in nursing homes. This intervention also improved long-term emotional social support and short-term appraisal support, and decreased residents' instrumental social support. However, this intervention had no effect on informational social support.

Resumo Limpo

ckground month videoconfer interact program famili member shown decreas depress loneli nurs home resid howev littl known longterm effect resid depress symptom social support lonelinessobject purpos longitudin quasiexperiment studi evalu longterm effect videoconfer intervent improv nurs home resid social support loneli depress status yearmethod purpos sampl nurs home various area taiwan elder resid n nurs home meet inclus criteria divid experiment n comparison n group experiment group receiv least minutesweek month videoconfer interact famili member addit usual famili visit comparison group receiv regular famili visit data collect faceto face interview social support loneli depress status use social support behavior scale univers california los angel loneli scale geriatr depress scale respect four time baselin month month month baselin data analyz use general estim equat approachresult videoconferenc program particip experiment group signific lower mean chang instrument social support score month p month p higher mean chang emot social support p month p apprais support month p adjust confound variabl particip experiment group also signific lower mean loneli depress status score month p p respect month p p month p p compar baselin comparison groupconclus videoconfer program longterm effect allevi depress symptom loneli elder resid nurs home intervent also improv longterm emot social support shortterm apprais support decreas resid instrument social support howev intervent effect inform social support

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