J. Med. Internet Res. - Quality of online pharmacies and websites selling prescription drugs: a systematic review.


{ inform(2794) health(2639) internet(1427) }
{ studi(2440) review(1878) systemat(933) }
{ survey(1388) particip(1329) question(1065) }
{ search(2224) databas(1162) retriev(909) }
{ medic(1828) order(1363) alert(1069) }
{ research(1085) discuss(1038) issu(1018) }
{ data(3963) clinic(1234) research(1004) }
{ spatial(1525) area(1432) region(1030) }
{ risk(3053) factor(974) diseas(938) }
{ sampl(1606) size(1419) use(1276) }
{ result(1111) use(1088) new(759) }
{ system(1976) rule(880) can(841) }
{ method(1219) similar(1157) match(930) }
{ howev(809) still(633) remain(590) }
{ studi(1410) differ(1259) use(1210) }
{ import(1318) role(1303) understand(862) }
{ studi(1119) effect(1106) posit(819) }
{ estim(2440) model(1874) function(577) }
{ decis(3086) make(1611) patient(1517) }
{ assess(1506) score(1403) qualiti(1306) }
{ visual(1396) interact(850) tool(830) }
{ research(1218) medic(880) student(794) }
{ implement(1333) system(1263) develop(1122) }
{ can(774) often(719) complex(702) }
{ problem(2511) optim(1539) algorithm(950) }
{ method(1557) propos(1049) approach(1037) }
{ health(3367) inform(1360) care(1135) }
{ patient(2837) hospit(1953) medic(668) }
{ cost(1906) reduc(1198) effect(832) }
{ high(1669) rate(1365) level(1280) }
{ drug(1928) target(777) effect(648) }
{ model(3404) distribut(989) bayesian(671) }
{ imag(1947) propos(1133) code(1026) }
{ sequenc(1873) structur(1644) protein(1328) }
{ imag(2830) propos(1344) filter(1198) }
{ network(2748) neural(1063) input(814) }
{ framework(1458) process(801) describ(734) }
{ extract(1171) text(1153) clinic(932) }
{ method(984) reconstruct(947) comput(926) }
{ featur(1941) imag(1645) propos(1176) }
{ compound(1573) activ(1297) structur(1058) }
{ record(1888) medic(1808) patient(1693) }
{ monitor(1329) mobil(1314) devic(1160) }
{ ehr(2073) health(1662) electron(1139) }
{ age(1611) year(1155) adult(843) }
{ group(2977) signific(1463) compar(1072) }
{ first(2504) two(1366) second(1323) }
{ time(1939) patient(1703) rate(768) }
{ can(981) present(881) function(850) }
{ activ(1452) weight(1219) physic(1104) }
{ method(2212) result(1239) propos(1039) }
{ data(1737) use(1416) pattern(1282) }
{ measur(2081) correl(1212) valu(896) }
{ imag(1057) registr(996) error(939) }
{ bind(1733) structur(1185) ligand(1036) }
{ featur(3375) classif(2383) classifi(1994) }
{ imag(2675) segment(2577) method(1081) }
{ patient(2315) diseas(1263) diabet(1191) }
{ take(945) account(800) differ(722) }
{ motion(1329) object(1292) video(1091) }
{ treatment(1704) effect(941) patient(846) }
{ surgeri(1148) surgic(1085) robot(1054) }
{ error(1145) method(1030) estim(1020) }
{ chang(1828) time(1643) increas(1301) }
{ learn(2355) train(1041) set(1003) }
{ concept(1167) ontolog(924) domain(897) }
{ clinic(1479) use(1117) guidelin(835) }
{ algorithm(1844) comput(1787) effici(935) }
{ data(1714) softwar(1251) tool(1186) }
{ design(1359) user(1324) use(1319) }
{ control(1307) perform(991) simul(935) }
{ model(2220) cell(1177) simul(1124) }
{ care(1570) inform(1187) nurs(1089) }
{ general(901) number(790) one(736) }
{ case(1353) use(1143) diagnosi(1136) }
{ perform(999) metric(946) measur(919) }
{ system(1050) medic(1026) inform(1018) }
{ model(2341) predict(2261) use(1141) }
{ perform(1367) use(1326) method(1137) }
{ blood(1257) pressur(1144) flow(957) }
{ model(3480) simul(1196) paramet(876) }
{ state(1844) use(1261) util(961) }
{ model(2656) set(1616) predict(1553) }
{ data(2317) use(1299) case(1017) }
{ signal(2180) analysi(812) frequenc(800) }
{ gene(2352) biolog(1181) express(1162) }
{ data(3008) multipl(1320) sourc(1022) }
{ intervent(3218) particip(2042) group(1664) }
{ activ(1138) subject(705) human(624) }
{ patient(1821) servic(1111) care(1106) }
{ use(2086) technolog(871) perceiv(783) }
{ analysi(2126) use(1163) compon(1037) }
{ health(1844) social(1437) communiti(874) }
{ structur(1116) can(940) graph(676) }
{ cancer(2502) breast(956) screen(824) }
{ use(976) code(926) identifi(902) }
{ use(1733) differ(960) four(931) }
{ process(1125) use(805) approach(778) }
{ method(1969) cluster(1462) data(1082) }
{ detect(2391) sensit(1101) algorithm(908) }


CKGROUND: Online pharmacies are companies that sell pharmaceutical preparations, including prescription-only drugs, on the Internet. Very little is known about this phenomenon because many online pharmacies operate from remote countries, where legal bases and business practices are largely inaccessible to international research.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to perform an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the scientific literature focusing on the broader picture of online pharmacies by scanning several scientific and institutional databases, with no publication time limits.METHODS: We searched 4 electronic databases up to January 2011 and the gray literature on the Internet using the Google search engine and its tool Google Scholar. We also investigated the official websites of institutional agencies (World Health Organization, and US and European centers for disease control and drug regulation authorities). We focused specifically on online pharmacies offering prescription-only drugs. We decided to analyze and report only articles with original data, in order to review all the available data regarding online pharmacies and their usage.RESULTS: We selected 193 relevant articles: 76 articles with original data, and 117 articles without original data (editorials, regulation articles, or the like) including 5 reviews. The articles with original data cover samples of online pharmacies in 47 cases, online drug purchases in 13, consumer characteristics in 15, and case reports on adverse effects of online drugs in 12. The studies show that random samples with no specific limits to prescription requirements found that at least some websites sold drugs without a prescription and that an online questionnaire was a frequent tool to replace prescription. Data about geographical characteristics show that this information can be concealed in many websites. The analysis of drug offer showed that online a consumer can get virtually everything. Regarding quality of drugs, researchers very often found inappropriate packaging and labeling, whereas the chemical composition usually was not as expected in a minority of the studies' samples. Regarding consumers, the majority of studies found that not more than 6% of the samples had bought drugs online.CONCLUSIONS: Online pharmacies are an important phenomenon that is continuing to spread, despite partial regulation, due to intrinsic difficulties linked to the impalpable and evanescent nature of the Web and its global dimension. To enhance the benefits and minimize the risks of online pharmacies, a 2-level approach could be adopted. The first level should focus on policy, with laws regulating the phenomenon at an international level. The second level needs to focus on the individual. This approach should aim to increase health literacy, required for making appropriate health choices, recognizing risks and making the most of the multitude of opportunities offered by the world of medicine 2.0.

Resumo Limpo

ckground onlin pharmaci compani sell pharmaceut prepar includ prescriptionon drug internet littl known phenomenon mani onlin pharmaci oper remot countri legal base busi practic larg inaccess intern researchobject aim studi perform uptod comprehens review scientif literatur focus broader pictur onlin pharmaci scan sever scientif institut databas public time limitsmethod search electron databas januari gray literatur internet use googl search engin tool googl scholar also investig offici websit institut agenc world health organ us european center diseas control drug regul author focus specif onlin pharmaci offer prescriptionon drug decid analyz report articl origin data order review avail data regard onlin pharmaci usageresult select relev articl articl origin data articl without origin data editori regul articl like includ review articl origin data cover sampl onlin pharmaci case onlin drug purchas consum characterist case report advers effect onlin drug studi show random sampl specif limit prescript requir found least websit sold drug without prescript onlin questionnair frequent tool replac prescript data geograph characterist show inform can conceal mani websit analysi drug offer show onlin consum can get virtual everyth regard qualiti drug research often found inappropri packag label wherea chemic composit usual expect minor studi sampl regard consum major studi found sampl bought drug onlineconclus onlin pharmaci import phenomenon continu spread despit partial regul due intrins difficulti link impalp evanesc natur web global dimens enhanc benefit minim risk onlin pharmaci level approach adopt first level focus polici law regul phenomenon intern level second level need focus individu approach aim increas health literaci requir make appropri health choic recogn risk make multitud opportun offer world medicin

Resumos Similares

Inform Health Soc Care - Comparison of accessing online databases between physicians and nurses in Taiwan. ( 0,726430618330306 )
Health Info Libr J - Assessing internet access and use in a medically underserved population: implications for providing enhanced health information services. ( 0,722233472637056 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Presenting evidence to patients online: what do web users think of consumer summaries of cochrane musculoskeletal reviews? ( 0,710234669392781 )
J Am Med Inform Assoc - Building public trust in uses of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act de-identified data. ( 0,684617294097132 )
Health Informatics J - Website design: technical, social and medical issues for self-reporting by elderly patients. ( 0,675691655585864 )
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak - Physicians reading and writing practices: a cross-sectional study from Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. ( 0,675462004873599 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Utilization and perceived problems of online medical resources and search tools among different groups of European physicians. ( 0,669372201243452 )
Inform Health Soc Care - UK doctors awareness and use of specified electronic evidence-based medicine resources. ( 0,667035266089151 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Dirt cheap and without prescription: how susceptible are young US consumers to purchasing drugs from rogue internet pharmacies? ( 0,656513390273491 )
Health Informatics J - Healthcare information on YouTube: A systematic review. ( 0,655637371470333 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - The effects of preference for information on consumers' online health information search behavior. ( 0,654505961732529 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Do online mental health services improve help-seeking for young people? A systematic review. ( 0,653060186368077 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Assessing the applicability of e-therapies for depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders among lesbians and gay men: analysis of 24 web- and mobile phone-based self-help interventions. ( 0,650672639364131 )
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak - An evaluation of the content and quality of tinnitus information on websites preferred by General Practitioners. ( 0,633680893829687 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Eight questions about physician-rating websites: a systematic review. ( 0,631306603942851 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Mapping mHealth research: a decade of evolution. ( 0,629996456995139 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Information-seeking at a caregiving website: a qualitative analysis. ( 0,623113237972968 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Evaluation of a novel Conjunctive Exploratory Navigation Interface for consumer health information: a crowdsourced comparative study. ( 0,622086864814119 )
Health Info Libr J - Information needs and information-seeking behaviour analysis of primary care physicians and nurses: a literature review. ( 0,617334562441041 )
J Med Syst - The differing privacy concerns regarding exchanging electronic medical records of internet users in Taiwan. ( 0,613870788581731 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Improving access to information and support for patients with less common cancers: hematologic cancer patients' views about Web-based approaches. ( 0,613231958252673 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - eHealth literacy interventions for older adults: a systematic review of the literature. ( 0,610150487396829 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - eHealth literacy among college students: a systematic review with implications for eHealth education. ( 0,608565474980317 )
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak - Generic medicines: an evaluation of the accuracy and accessibility of information available on the Internet. ( 0,605949190338017 )
J Med Syst - Consumer support for health information exchange and personal health records: a regional health information organization survey. ( 0,605178930044515 )
J Telemed Telecare - A qualitative study of the careers and professional practices of graduates from an e-health postgraduate programme. ( 0,604083281623205 )
Med Decis Making - Bridging health technology assessment (HTA) and efficient health care decision making with multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA): applying the EVIDEM framework to medicines appraisal. ( 0,603965917257142 )
J Am Med Inform Assoc - An integrative review of information systems and terminologies used in local health departments. ( 0,603650354737688 )
Res Synth Methods - Search wide, dig deep: literature searching for qualitative research. An analysis of the publication formats and information sources used for four systematic reviews in public health. ( 0,603006788218492 )
Telemed J E Health - National health information infrastructure model: a milestone for health information management education realignment. ( 0,600136417668961 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - A field test of Web-based screening for dry eye disease to enhance awareness of eye problems among general Internet users: a latent strategy to promote health. ( 0,599426175683748 )
Health Info Libr J - The role of health information kiosks in diverse settings: a systematic review. ( 0,598914168324264 )
AMIA Annu Symp Proc - Analysis of online information searching for cardiovascular diseases on a consumer health information portal. ( 0,596155146059719 )
Health Informatics J - A systematic review of eHealth interventions to improve health literacy. ( 0,593141390766039 )
Telemed J E Health - TXT@WORK: pediatric hospitalists and text messaging. ( 0,590991431811986 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Crowdsourced health research studies: an important emerging complement to clinical trials in the public health research ecosystem. ( 0,589787794315162 )
Inform Health Soc Care - Parental knowledge of coeliac disease. ( 0,589477713501324 )
Inform Health Soc Care - Information and communication technology and community-based health sciences training in Uganda: perceptions and experiences of educators and students. ( 0,589220101449748 )
J Biomed Inform - Toward automated consumer question answering: automatically separating consumer questions from professional questions in the healthcare domain. ( 0,586714328868145 )
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak - A method for discovering and inferring appropriate eligibility criteria in clinical trial protocols without labeled data. ( 0,584837226743711 )
Health Info Libr J - Do open access biomedical journals benefit smaller countries? The Slovenian experience. ( 0,584462850826698 )
J Telemed Telecare - Teleconsultation via the web: an analysis of the type of questions that Iranian patients ask. ( 0,583394238804014 )
Int J Med Inform - Reviewing the impact of computerized provider order entry on clinical outcomes: The quality of systematic reviews. ( 0,582715485101934 )
Res Synth Methods - Searching for grey literature for systematic reviews: challenges and benefits. ( 0,582508898073413 )
AMIA Annu Symp Proc - Information is in the eye of the beholder: Seeking information on the MMR vaccine through an Internet search engine. ( 0,58168116978212 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Evaluating aspects of online medication safety in long-term follow-up of 136 Internet pharmacies: illegal rogue online pharmacies flourish and are long-lived. ( 0,581227940571635 )
Med Decis Making - Interventions to improve patient comprehension in informed consent for medical and surgical procedures: a systematic review. ( 0,581222999852457 )
Comput Methods Programs Biomed - Automatic information timeliness assessment of diabetes web sites by evidence based medicine. ( 0,581085052694911 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - A method for the design and development of medical or health care information websites to optimize search engine results page rankings on Google. ( 0,580228856362392 )
Inform Health Soc Care - A community education initiative to improve using online health information: participation and impact. ( 0,579816515566039 )
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak - Surfing the internet for health information: an italian survey on use and population choices. ( 0,577911468272221 )
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak - The Qu?bec BCG Vaccination Registry (1956-1992): assessing data quality and linkage with administrative health databases. ( 0,577296111429039 )
Health Informatics J - Information and decision support needs in patients with type 2 diabetes. ( 0,577193051278815 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - eHealth literacy: extending the digital divide to the realm of health information. ( 0,577116077887205 )
Brief. Bioinformatics - Comparability and reproducibility of biomedical data. ( 0,575565288617735 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Definition of Health 2.0 and Medicine 2.0: a systematic review. ( 0,574517667956466 )
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak - An online expert network for high quality information on occupational safety and health: cross-sectional study of user satisfaction and impact. ( 0,573755672485113 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - How patients with schizophrenia use the internet: qualitative study. ( 0,573363814556919 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - eHealth interventions for HIV prevention in high-risk men who have sex with men: a systematic review. ( 0,573355179158926 )
Telemed J E Health - Support for e-health services among elderly primary care patients. ( 0,573262480382149 )
Int J Med Inform - The effectiveness of computerized drug-lab alerts: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 0,573072665371635 )
J Med Syst - Smartphones and health promotion: a review of the evidence. ( 0,572305543184403 )
Health Info Libr J - Searching MEDLINE for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health literature: questionable sensitivity. ( 0,572304176121058 )
Telemed J E Health - Psychological online consultation service attracts men: a new approach to close the gap between being ill and being treated. ( 0,57182549671614 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Parents seeking health-related information on the Internet: cross-sectional study. ( 0,571789991507892 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Acceptance of Internet-based health care services among households in Poland: secondary analysis of a population-based survey. ( 0,571334097710507 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Review of extracting information from the Social Web for health personalization. ( 0,571262029593786 )
J Biomed Inform - Publishing data from electronic health records while preserving privacy: a survey of algorithms. ( 0,570350554820074 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Incidence of online health information search: a useful proxy for public health risk perception. ( 0,570310485990977 )
AMIA Annu Symp Proc - What do patients search for when seeking clinical trial information online? ( 0,57018415868116 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - An experimental test of the persuasive effect of source similarity in narrative and nonnarrative health blogs. ( 0,570104269481679 )
Int J Med Inform - An exploratory study of inactive health information seekers. ( 0,569232007852103 )
J Am Med Inform Assoc - From health search to healthcare: explorations of intention and utilization via query logs and user surveys. ( 0,568833358618698 )
J Biomed Inform - Health literacy screening instruments for eHealth applications: a systematic review. ( 0,568332756201369 )
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak - A study on PubMed search tag usage pattern: association rule mining of a full-day PubMed query log. ( 0,568122653204086 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Use of web 2.0 to recruit Australian gay men to an online HIV/AIDS survey. ( 0,567691974946723 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - The representation of suicide on the Internet: implications for clinicians. ( 0,567404771518988 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Motivations for contributing to health-related articles on Wikipedia: an interview study. ( 0,566573760310968 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Can online consumers contribute to drug knowledge? A mixed-methods comparison of consumer-generated and professionally controlled psychotropic medication information on the internet. ( 0,566360044045629 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - What do web-use skill differences imply for online health information searches? ( 0,566193993016425 )
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak - Use of the internet as a source of health information by Spanish adolescents. ( 0,565813721327444 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - The impact of search engine selection and sorting criteria on vaccination beliefs and attitudes: two experiments manipulating Google output. ( 0,565779295863009 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Why do patients and caregivers seek answers from the Internet and online lung specialists? A qualitative study. ( 0,565447860050873 )
Comput Math Methods Med - Antibiotic use as a tragedy of the commons: a cross-sectional survey. ( 0,564119014558706 )
Health Info Libr J - 'Quality signposting': the role of online information prescription in providing patient information. ( 0,562586232170438 )
Int J Med Inform - Market segmentation of health information use on the Internet in Korea. ( 0,562342620381589 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Accessing suicide-related information on the internet: a retrospective observational study of search behavior. ( 0,56217549068869 )
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak - Does googling for preconception care result in information consistent with international guidelines: a comparison of information found by Italian women of childbearing age and health professionals. ( 0,560945526973528 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Consumers' perceptions of patient-accessible electronic medical records. ( 0,560552642830796 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Young men, mental health, and technology: implications for service design and delivery in the digital age. ( 0,560534173830908 )
Telemed J E Health - Quality and methodological challenges in Internet-based mental health trials. ( 0,560399425363856 )
Inform Health Soc Care - Seeking health advice on the Internet in patients with health problems: a cross-sectional population study in Slovenia. ( 0,5603224907886 )
Telemed J E Health - Transfer of information from personal health records: a survey of veterans using My HealtheVet. ( 0,559928001065052 )
J Telemed Telecare - Delivery of Internet-based cancer genetic counselling services to patients' homes: a feasibility study. ( 0,557995538171094 )
Res Synth Methods - A scoping review of scoping reviews: advancing the approach and enhancing the consistency. ( 0,557823496812766 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Development of a web-based survey for monitoring daily health and its application in an epidemiological survey. ( 0,557563394582287 )
Med Decis Making - Heterogeneity of cancer patient information-seeking behaviors. ( 0,557544909117334 )
Telemed J E Health - Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness studies of telemedicine, electronic, and mobile health systems in the literature: a systematic review. ( 0,55751639426531 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - eMental health experiences and expectations: a survey of youths' Web-based resource preferences in Canada. ( 0,557316132171151 )
J. Med. Internet Res. - Physician choice making and characteristics associated with using physician-rating websites: cross-sectional study. ( 0,556881969078845 )