J. Med. Internet Res. - Broad reach and targeted recruitment using Facebook for an online survey of young adult substance use.


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CKGROUND: Studies of tobacco use and other health behaviors have reported great challenges in recruiting young adults. Social media is widely used by young adults in the United States and represents a potentially fast, affordable method of recruiting study participants for survey research.OBJECTIVE: The present study examined Facebook as a mechanism to reach and survey young adults about tobacco and other substance use.METHODS: Participants were cigarette users, age 18-25 years old, living throughout the United States and recruited through Facebook to complete a survey about tobacco and other substance use. Paid advertising using Facebook's Ad program over 13 months from 2010 Feb 28 to 2011 Apr 4 targeted by age (18-25), location (United States or California), language (English), and tobacco- and/or marijuana-related keywords. Facebook approved all ads.RESULTS: The campaign used 20 ads, which generated 28,683,151 impressions, yielding 14,808 clicks (0.7% of targeted Facebook members), at an overall cost of $6,628.24. The average cost per click on an ad was $0.45. The success of individual ads varied widely. There was a rise in both clicks and impressions as the campaign grew. However, the peak for clicks was 3 months before the peak for ad impressions. Of the 69,937,080 accounts for those age 18-25 in the United States, Facebook estimated that 2.8% (n = 1,980,240) were reached through tobacco and marijuana keywords. Our campaign yielded 5237 signed consents (35.4% of clicks), of which 3093 (59%) met criteria, and 1548 (50% of those who met criteria) completed the survey. The final cost per valid completed survey was $4.28. The majority of completed surveys came from whites (69%) and males (72%). The sample averaged 8.9 cigarettes per day (SD 7.5), 3.8 years of smoking (SD 2.9), with a median of 1 lifetime quit attempts; 48% did not intend to quit smoking in the next 6 months.CONCLUSIONS: Despite wide variety in the success of individual ads and potential concerns about sample representativeness, Facebook was a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young-adult smokers to complete a survey about the use of tobacco and other substances. The current findings support Facebook as a viable recruitment option for assessment of health behavior in young adults.

Resumo Limpo

ckground studi tobacco use health behavior report great challeng recruit young adult social media wide use young adult unit state repres potenti fast afford method recruit studi particip survey researchobject present studi examin facebook mechan reach survey young adult tobacco substanc usemethod particip cigarett user age year old live throughout unit state recruit facebook complet survey tobacco substanc use paid advertis use facebook ad program month feb apr target age locat unit state california languag english tobacco andor marijuanarel keyword facebook approv adsresult campaign use ad generat impress yield click target facebook member overal cost averag cost per click ad success individu ad vari wide rise click impress campaign grew howev peak click month peak ad impress account age unit state facebook estim n reach tobacco marijuana keyword campaign yield sign consent click met criteria met criteria complet survey final cost per valid complet survey major complet survey came white male sampl averag cigarett per day sd year smoke sd median lifetim quit attempt intend quit smoke next monthsconclus despit wide varieti success individu ad potenti concern sampl repres facebook use costeffect recruit sourc youngadult smoker complet survey use tobacco substanc current find support facebook viabl recruit option assess health behavior young adult

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