J. Med. Internet Res. - Comparison of Web-based and paper-based administration of ADHD questionnaires for adults.


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CKGROUND: Satisfactory psychometric properties in offline questionnaires do not guarantee the same outcome in Web-based versions. Any construct that is measured online should be compared to a paper-based assessment so that the appropriateness of online questionnaire data can be tested. Little research has been done in this area regarding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults.OBJECTIVE: The objective was to simultaneously collect paper-based and Web-based ADHD questionnaire data in adults not diagnosed with ADHD in order to compare the two data sources regarding their equivalence in raw scores, in measures of reliability, and in factorial structures.METHODS: Data from the German versions of the Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS-S), the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-k), and the ADHD Self Rating Scale (ADHS-SB) were collected via online and paper questionnaires in a cross-sectional study with convenience sampling. We performed confirmatory factor analyses to examine the postulated factor structures in both groups separately and multiple group confirmatory factor analyses to test whether the postulated factor structures of the questionnaires were equivalent across groups. With Cronbach alpha, we investigated the internal consistency of the postulated factors in the different questionnaires. Mann-Whitney U tests with the effect size "Probability of Superiority (PS)" were used to compare absolute values in the questionnaires between the two groups.RESULTS: In the paper-based sample, there were 311 subjects (73.3% female); in the online sample, we reached 255 subjects (69% female). The paper-based sample had a mean age of 39.2 years (SD 18.6); the Web-based sample had a mean age of 30.4 years (SD 10.5) and had a higher educational background. The original four factor structure of the CAARS-S could be replicated in both samples, but factor loadings were different. The Web-based sample had significantly higher total scores on three scales. The five-factor structure of the German short form of the WURS-k could be replicated only in the Web-based sample. The Web-based sample had substantially higher total scores, and nearly 40% of the Web-based sample scored above the clinically relevant cut-off value. The three-factor structure of the ADHS-SB could be replicated in both samples, but factor loadings were different. Women in the Web-based sample had substantially higher total scores, and 30% of the Web-based sample scored above the clinically relevant cut-off value. Internal consistencies in all questionnaires were acceptable to high in both groups.CONCLUSIONS: Data from the Web-based administration of ADHD questionnaires for adults should not be used for the extraction of population norms. Separate norms should be established for ADHD online questionnaires. General psychometric properties of ADHD questionnaires (factor structure, internal consistency) were largely unaffected by sampling bias. Extended validity studies of existing ADHD questionnaires should be performed by including subjects with a diagnosis of ADHD and by randomizing them to Web- or paper-based administration.

Resumo Limpo

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