Med Biol Eng Comput - Estimating nerve excitation thresholds to cutaneous electrical stimulation by finite element modeling combined with a stochastic branching nerve fiber model.

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Resumo

Electrical stimulation of cutaneous tissue through surface electrodes is an often used method for evoking experimental pain. However, at painful intensities both non-nociceptive A?-fibers and nociceptive Ad- and C-fibers may be activated by the electrical stimulation. This study proposes a finite element (FE) model of the extracellular potential and stochastic branching fiber model of the afferent fiber excitation thresholds. The FE model described four horizontal layers; stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis, and hypodermal used to estimate the excitation threshold of A?-fibers terminating in dermis and Ad-fibers terminating in epidermis. The perception thresholds of 11 electrodes with diameters ranging from 0.2 to 20 mm were modeled and assessed on the volar forearm of healthy human volunteers by an adaptive two-alternative forced choice algorithm. The model showed that the magnitude of the current density was highest for smaller electrodes and decreased through the skin. The excitation thresholds of the Ad-fibers were lower than the excitation thresholds of A?-fibers when current was applied through small, but not large electrodes. The experimentally assessed perception threshold followed the lowest excitation threshold of the modeled fibers. The model confirms that preferential excitation of Ad-fibers may be achieved by small electrode stimulation due to higher current density in the dermoepidermal junction.

Resumo Limpo

electr stimul cutan tissu surfac electrod often use method evok experiment pain howev pain intens nonnocicept afib nocicept ad cfiber may activ electr stimul studi propos finit element fe model extracellular potenti stochast branch fiber model affer fiber excit threshold fe model describ four horizont layer stratum corneum epidermi dermi hypoderm use estim excit threshold afib termin dermi adfib termin epidermi percept threshold electrod diamet rang mm model assess volar forearm healthi human volunt adapt twoaltern forc choic algorithm model show magnitud current densiti highest smaller electrod decreas skin excit threshold adfib lower excit threshold afib current appli small larg electrod experiment assess percept threshold follow lowest excit threshold model fiber model confirm preferenti excit adfib may achiev small electrod stimul due higher current densiti dermoepiderm junction

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