Methods Inf Med - Surface and intramural reentrant patterns during atrial fibrillation in the sheep.


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TRODUCTION: This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Biosignal Interpretation: Advanced Methods for Studying Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems".BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in humans and is predicted to dramatically increase its prevalence in the future. High-resolution mapping data and Fourier power spectral analysis with its dominant frequency support the hypothesis that AF in the structurally normal sheep heart and in some patients often presents organized drivers in the form of periodic surface re-entries or breakthroughs. Nevertheless, the dynamics of those surface patterns of activity, as well as their intramural components are still poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: To present data on AF waves from the surface of isolated sheep hearts and discuss the interpretation of their intramural patterns.METHODS: We used a combination of endocardial-epicardial optical mapping with phase and spectral analysis as well as computer simulation of the re-entrant activity in the myocardial wall.RESULTS: Analysis of the surfaces' optical mapping data in the phase domain reveals that activation of the posterior left atrium (PLA) consisted of alternating patterns of breakthroughs and reentries. The patterns on the endocardial and epicardial PLA surface at any given moment of time of the AF could be either identical or not identical, and the activity in the thickness of the PLA wall is hypothesized to conform to either ectopic discharge or reentrant scroll waves, but a definite evidence for the presence of such mechanisms is currently lacking. A universal minimal-principle theory is shown in a computer model to result in a tendency of the axis of the scroll waves to align with the myocardial fibers inside the wall.CONCLUSION: The tendency of filaments of scroll waves to align with myocardial fibers may contribute to the variety and intermittency of surface rotors seen in AF.

Resumo Limpo

troduct articl part focus theme method inform medicin biosign interpret advanc method studi cardiovascular respiratori systemsbackground atrial fibril af common sustain cardiac arrhythmia human predict dramat increas preval futur highresolut map data fourier power spectral analysi domin frequenc support hypothesi af structur normal sheep heart patient often present organ driver form period surfac reentri breakthrough nevertheless dynam surfac pattern activ well intramur compon still poor understoodobject present data af wave surfac isol sheep heart discuss interpret intramur patternsmethod use combin endocardialepicardi optic map phase spectral analysi well comput simul reentrant activ myocardi wallresult analysi surfac optic map data phase domain reveal activ posterior left atrium pla consist altern pattern breakthrough reentri pattern endocardi epicardi pla surfac given moment time af either ident ident activ thick pla wall hypothes conform either ectop discharg reentrant scroll wave definit evid presenc mechan current lack univers minimalprincipl theori shown comput model result tendenc axi scroll wave align myocardi fiber insid wallconclus tendenc filament scroll wave align myocardi fiber may contribut varieti intermitt surfac rotor seen af

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