Neural Comput - Neuronal responses below firing threshold for subthreshold cross-modal enhancement.

Tópicos

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Resumo

Multisensory integration (such as somatosensation-vision, gustation-olfaction) could occur even between subthreshold stimuli that in isolation do not reach perceptual awareness. For example, when a somatosensory (subthreshold) stimulus is delivered within a close spatiotemporal congruency, a visual (subthreshold) stimulus evokes a visual percept. Cross-modal enhancement of visual perception is maximal when the somatosensory stimulation precedes the visual one by tens of milliseconds. This rapid modulatory response would not be consistent with a top-down mechanism acting through higher-order multimodal cortical areas, but rather a direct interaction between lower-order unimodal areas. To elucidate the neuronal mechanisms of subthreshold cross-modal enhancement, we simulated a neural network model. In the model, lower unimodal (X, Y) and higher multimodal (M) networks are reciprocally connected by bottom-up and top-down axonal projections. The lower networks are laterally connected with each other. A pair of stimuli was presented to the lower networks, whose respective intensities were too weak to induce salient neuronal activity (population response) when presented alone. Neurons of the Y network were slightly depolarized below firing threshold when a cross-modal stimulus was presented alone to the X network. This allowed the Y network to make a rapid (within tens of milliseconds) population response when presented with a subsequent congruent stimulus. The reaction speed of the Y network was accelerated, provided that the top-down projections were strengthened. We suggest that a subthreshold (nonpopulation) response to a cross-modal stimulus, acting through interaction between lower (primary unisensory) areas, may be essential for a rapid suprathreshold (population) response to a congruent stimulus that follows. Top-down influences on cross-modal enhancement may be faster than expected, accelerating reaction speed to input, in which ongoing-spontaneous subthreshold excitation of lower-order unimodal cells by higher-order multimodal cells may play an active role.

Resumo Limpo

multisensori integr somatosensationvis gustationolfact occur even subthreshold stimuli isol reach perceptu awar exampl somatosensori subthreshold stimulus deliv within close spatiotempor congruenc visual subthreshold stimulus evok visual percept crossmod enhanc visual percept maxim somatosensori stimul preced visual one ten millisecond rapid modulatori respons consist topdown mechan act higherord multimod cortic area rather direct interact lowerord unimod area elucid neuron mechan subthreshold crossmod enhanc simul neural network model model lower unimod x y higher multimod m network reciproc connect bottomup topdown axon project lower network later connect pair stimuli present lower network whose respect intens weak induc salient neuron activ popul respons present alon neuron y network slight depolar fire threshold crossmod stimulus present alon x network allow y network make rapid within ten millisecond popul respons present subsequ congruent stimulus reaction speed y network acceler provid topdown project strengthen suggest subthreshold nonpopul respons crossmod stimulus act interact lower primari unisensori area may essenti rapid suprathreshold popul respons congruent stimulus follow topdown influenc crossmod enhanc may faster expect acceler reaction speed input ongoingspontan subthreshold excit lowerord unimod cell higherord multimod cell may play activ role

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