Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med - Mediators and dynamics of DNA methylation.

Tópicos

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Resumo

As an inherited epigenetic marker occurring mainly on cytosines at CpG dinucleotides, DNA methylation occurs across many higher eukaryotic organisms. Looking at methylation patterns genome-wide classifies cell types uniquely and in several cases discriminates between healthy and cancerous cell types. DNA methylation can occur allele-specifically, which allows the cellular regulatory machinery to recognize each allele separately. Although only a small number of allele specifically methylated (ASM) regions are known, genome-wide experiments show that ASM is prevalent throughout the human genome. These DNA methylation patterns can be modified via DNA demethylation, which is important for induced pluripotent stem reprogramming and primordial germ cells. Recent evidence shows that the protein activation-induced cytidine deaminase plays a critical role in these demethylation events. Many transcription factors mediate DNA methylation patterns. Some transcription factors bind specifically to methylated or unmethylated sequences and other transcription factors protect genomic regions (e.g., promoter regions) from nearby DNA methylation encroachment. Possibly acting as another epigenetic regulatory layer, methylated cytosines are also converted to 5-hydroxyethylcyotines, which is a new modification type whose biological significance has yet been defined.

Resumo Limpo

inherit epigenet marker occur main cytosin cpg dinucleotid dna methyl occur across mani higher eukaryot organ look methyl pattern genomewid classifi cell type uniqu sever case discrimin healthi cancer cell type dna methyl can occur allelespecif allow cellular regulatori machineri recogn allel separ although small number allel specif methyl asm region known genomewid experi show asm preval throughout human genom dna methyl pattern can modifi via dna demethyl import induc pluripot stem reprogram primordi germ cell recent evid show protein activationinduc cytidin deaminas play critic role demethyl event mani transcript factor mediat dna methyl pattern transcript factor bind specif methyl unmethyl sequenc transcript factor protect genom region eg promot region nearbi dna methyl encroach possibl act anoth epigenet regulatori layer methyl cytosin also convert hydroxyethylcyotin new modif type whose biolog signific yet defin

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