Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med - Mechano-sensing and transduction by endothelial surface glycocalyx: composition, structure, and function.

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Resumo

The endothelial cells (ECs) lining every blood vessel wall are constantly exposed to the mechanical forces generated by blood flow. The EC responses to these hemodynamic forces play a critical role in the homeostasis of the circulatory system. To ensure proper EC mechano-sensing and transduction, there are a variety of mechano-sensors and transducers that have been identified on the EC surface, intra- and trans-EC membrane and within the EC cytoskeleton. Among them, the most recent candidate is the endothelial surface glycocalyx (ESG), which is a matrix-like thin layer covering the luminal surface of the EC. It consists of various proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, and plasma proteins, and is close to other prominent EC mechano-sensors and transducers. The ESG thickness was found to be in the order of 0.1-1 ?m by different visualization techniques and in different types of vessels. Detailed analysis on the electron microscopy (EM) images of the microvascular ESG revealed a quasi-periodic substructure with the ESG fiber diameter of 10-12 and 20 nm spacing between adjacent fibers. Atomic force microscopy and optical tweezers were applied to investigate the mechanical properties of the ESG on the cultured EC monolayers and in solutions. Enzymatic degradation of specific ESG glycosaminoglycan components was used to directly elucidate the role of the ESG in EC mechano-sensing and transduction by measuring the shear-induced productions of nitric oxide and prostacyclin, two characteristic responses of the ECs to the flow. The unique location, composition, and structure of the ESG determine its role in EC mechano-sensing and transduction.

Resumo Limpo

endotheli cell ec line everi blood vessel wall constant expos mechan forc generat blood flow ec respons hemodynam forc play critic role homeostasi circulatori system ensur proper ec mechanosens transduct varieti mechanosensor transduc identifi ec surfac intra transec membran within ec cytoskeleton among recent candid endotheli surfac glycocalyx esg matrixlik thin layer cover lumin surfac ec consist various proteoglycan glycosaminoglycan plasma protein close promin ec mechanosensor transduc esg thick found order m differ visual techniqu differ type vessel detail analysi electron microscopi em imag microvascular esg reveal quasiperiod substructur esg fiber diamet nm space adjac fiber atom forc microscopi optic tweezer appli investig mechan properti esg cultur ec monolay solut enzymat degrad specif esg glycosaminoglycan compon use direct elucid role esg ec mechanosens transduct measur shearinduc product nitric oxid prostacyclin two characterist respons ec flow uniqu locat composit structur esg determin role ec mechanosens transduct

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