Comput Biol Chem - Detecting adaptive evolution and functional divergence in aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) gene family.

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Resumo

Ethylene is an essential plant gaseous hormone that controls many aspects of plant growth and development, especially the fruit ripening. It is important to know how this hormone is synthesized and how its production is regulated to understand the roles of ethylene in plant development. The aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) gene is a rate-limiting enzyme in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway, which is encoded by a highly divergent multi-gene family in plant species. Although many ACS genes have been cloned from a wide variety of plant species previously, their origin and evolutionary process are still not clear. In this study, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis based on an updated dataset including 107 members of plant ACS genes and eight ACS-like genes from animal as well as six AATase genes. The motifs were identified and the positive selection and functional divergence in the ACS gene family were detected. The results obtained from these analyses are consistent with previous division of the ACS gene family in angiosperm, i.e., three distinct clades, and show that the duplications of three subclades (I, II and III) ACS genes have occurred after the divergence of gymnosperm and angiosperm. We conclude that the ACS genes could have experienced three times significant positive selection as they underwent expansion in land plants and gain the full-scale ethylene biosynthesis and regulatory functions, and all plant ACS genes originated from plant-ACS-like genes which come from AATase genes.

Resumo Limpo

ethylen essenti plant gaseous hormon control mani aspect plant growth develop especi fruit ripen import know hormon synthes product regul understand role ethylen plant develop aminocyclopropanecarboxyl synthas ac gene ratelimit enzym ethylen biosynthesi pathway encod high diverg multigen famili plant speci although mani ac gene clone wide varieti plant speci previous origin evolutionari process still clear studi conduct phylogenet analysi base updat dataset includ member plant ac gene eight acslik gene anim well six aatas gene motif identifi posit select function diverg ac gene famili detect result obtain analys consist previous divis ac gene famili angiosperm ie three distinct clade show duplic three subclad ii iii ac gene occur diverg gymnosperm angiosperm conclud ac gene experienc three time signific posit select underw expans land plant gain fullscal ethylen biosynthesi regulatori function plant ac gene origin plantacslik gene come aatas gene

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