Comput Methods Programs Biomed - Computational analysis of cartilage implants based on an interpenetrated polymer network for tissue repairing.


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Interpenetrated polymer networks (IPNs), composed by two independent polymeric networks that spatially interpenetrate, are considered as valuable systems to control permeability and mechanical properties of hydrogels for biomedical applications. Specifically, poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA)-poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) IPNs have been explored as good hydrogels for mimicking articular cartilage. These lattices are proposed as matrix implants in cartilage damaged areas to avoid the discontinuity in flow uptake preventing its deterioration. The permeability of these implants is a key parameter that influences their success, by affecting oxygen and nutrient transport and removing cellular waste products to healthy cartilage. Experimental try-and-error approaches are mostly used to optimize the composition of such structures. However, computational simulation may offer a more exhaustive tool to test and screen out biomaterials mimicking cartilage, avoiding expensive and time-consuming experimental tests. An accurate and efficient prediction of material's permeability and internal directionality and magnitude of the fluid flow could be highly useful when optimizing biomaterials design processes. Here we present a 3D computational model based on Sussman-Bathe hyperelastic material behaviour. A fluid structure analysis is performed with ADINA software, considering these materials as two phases composites where the solid part is saturated by the fluid. The model is able to simulate the behaviour of three non-biodegradable hydrogel compositions, where percentages of PEA and PHEA are varied. Specifically, the aim of this study is (i) to verify the validity of the Sussman-Bathe material model to simulate the response of the PEA-PHEA biomaterials; (ii) to predict the fluid flux and the permeability of the proposed IPN hydrogels and (iii) to study the material domains where the passage of nutrients and cellular waste products is reduced leading to an inadequate flux distribution in healthy cartilage tissue. The obtained results show how the model predicts the permeability of the PEA-PHEA hydrogels and simulates the internal behaviour of the samples and shows the distribution and quantification of fluid flux.

Resumo Limpo

interpenetr polym network ipn compos two independ polymer network spatial interpenetr consid valuabl system control permeabl mechan properti hydrogel biomed applic specif polyethyl acryl peapolyhydroxyethyl acryl phea ipn explor good hydrogel mimick articular cartilag lattic propos matrix implant cartilag damag area avoid discontinu flow uptak prevent deterior permeabl implant key paramet influenc success affect oxygen nutrient transport remov cellular wast product healthi cartilag experiment tryanderror approach most use optim composit structur howev comput simul may offer exhaust tool test screen biomateri mimick cartilag avoid expens timeconsum experiment test accur effici predict materi permeabl intern direct magnitud fluid flow high use optim biomateri design process present d comput model base sussmanbath hyperelast materi behaviour fluid structur analysi perform adina softwar consid materi two phase composit solid part satur fluid model abl simul behaviour three nonbiodegrad hydrogel composit percentag pea phea vari specif aim studi verifi valid sussmanbath materi model simul respons peaphea biomateri ii predict fluid flux permeabl propos ipn hydrogel iii studi materi domain passag nutrient cellular wast product reduc lead inadequ flux distribut healthi cartilag tissu obtain result show model predict permeabl peaphea hydrogel simul intern behaviour sampl show distribut quantif fluid flux

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