Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg - High-sensitive fluorescence endoscope using electrocardiograph-synchronized multiple exposure.


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RPOSE: Fluorescence-based measurement of cardiac disease, using autofluorescent substances that already exist in the heart, has not been used for endoscopic surgery because the endoscopic lenses cannot transmit sufficient light. A highly sensitive fluorescence endoscope using an electrocardiograph (ECG)-synchronized multiple exposure (ESME) approach was developed that provides a bright fluorescent image.METHODS: A system was developed consisting of an endoscope, an excitation light, an ECG amplifier, a trigger and delay unit, and a computer. This system is based on periodic motion of the heart. Since the shape of the heart can be photographed by ECG triggering in a similar manner, a bright image can be synthesized by accumulating multiple trigger-captured images. Laboratory and in vivo experiments were performed to confirm the effectiveness of ESME.RESULTS: The experimental results revealed that the trigger unit generated the synchronization signals required to produce high-quality images of the heart depending on heart rate. The difference among trigger-captured images from the actual organ, which affects the quality of ESME images, was estimated at 0.65 mm from the calculated displacement of a marker on the heart. The results also revealed that a bright fluorescent image can be captured by ESME.CONCLUSION: A highly sensitive fluorescence endoscope using ESME was developed and successfully tested. The experimental results indicated that the method enabled high-quality image acquisition in a very low illumination environment. This system is effective for the observation of faint fluorescence in the heart and is useful for the intraoperative examination of the heart status.

Resumo Limpo

rpose fluorescencebas measur cardiac diseas use autofluoresc substanc alreadi exist heart use endoscop surgeri endoscop lens transmit suffici light high sensit fluoresc endoscop use electrocardiograph ecgsynchron multipl exposur esm approach develop provid bright fluoresc imagemethod system develop consist endoscop excit light ecg amplifi trigger delay unit comput system base period motion heart sinc shape heart can photograph ecg trigger similar manner bright imag can synthes accumul multipl triggercaptur imag laboratori vivo experi perform confirm effect esmeresult experiment result reveal trigger unit generat synchron signal requir produc highqual imag heart depend heart rate differ among triggercaptur imag actual organ affect qualiti esm imag estim mm calcul displac marker heart result also reveal bright fluoresc imag can captur esmeconclus high sensit fluoresc endoscop use esm develop success test experiment result indic method enabl highqual imag acquisit low illumin environ system effect observ faint fluoresc heart use intraop examin heart status

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