Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg - Segmentation of radiographic images under topological constraints: application to the femur.


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RPOSE: A framework for radiographic image segmentation under topological control based on two-dimensional (2D) image analysis was developed. The system is intended for use in common radiological tasks including fracture treatment analysis, osteoarthritis diagnostics and osteotomy management planning.METHODS: The segmentation framework utilizes a generic three-dimensional (3D) model of the bone of interest to define the anatomical topology. Non-rigid registration is performed between the projected contours of the generic 3D model and extracted edges of the X-ray image to achieve the segmentation. For fractured bones, the segmentation requires an additional step where a region-based active contours curve evolution is performed with a level set Mumford-Shah method to obtain the fracture surface edge. The application of the segmentation framework to analysis of human femur radiographs was evaluated. The proposed system has two major innovations. First, definition of the topological constraints does not require a statistical learning process, so the method is generally applicable to a variety of bony anatomy segmentation problems. Second, the methodology is able to handle both intact and fractured bone segmentation.RESULTS: Testing on clinical X-ray images yielded an average root mean squared distance (between the automatically segmented femur contour and the manual segmented ground truth) of 1.10 mm with a standard deviation of 0.13 mm. The proposed point correspondence estimation algorithm was benchmarked against three state-of-the-art point matching algorithms, demonstrating successful non-rigid registration for the cases of interest.CONCLUSIONS: A topologically constrained automatic bone contour segmentation framework was developed and tested, providing robustness to noise, outliers, deformations and occlusions.

Resumo Limpo

rpose framework radiograph imag segment topolog control base twodimension d imag analysi develop system intend use common radiolog task includ fractur treatment analysi osteoarthr diagnost osteotomi manag planningmethod segment framework util generic threedimension d model bone interest defin anatom topolog nonrigid registr perform project contour generic d model extract edg xray imag achiev segment fractur bone segment requir addit step regionbas activ contour curv evolut perform level set mumfordshah method obtain fractur surfac edg applic segment framework analysi human femur radiograph evalu propos system two major innov first definit topolog constraint requir statist learn process method general applic varieti boni anatomi segment problem second methodolog abl handl intact fractur bone segmentationresult test clinic xray imag yield averag root mean squar distanc automat segment femur contour manual segment ground truth mm standard deviat mm propos point correspond estim algorithm benchmark three stateoftheart point match algorithm demonstr success nonrigid registr case interestconclus topolog constrain automat bone contour segment framework develop test provid robust nois outlier deform occlus

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