Int J Health Geogr - International variation in neighborhood walkability, transit, and recreation environments using geographic information systems: the IPEN adult study.

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Resumo

CKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends strategies to improve urban design, public transportation, and recreation facilities to facilitate physical activity for non-communicable disease prevention for an increasingly urbanized global population. Most evidence supporting environmental associations with physical activity comes from single countries or regions with limited variation in urban form. This paper documents variation in comparable built environment features across countries from diverse regions.METHODS: The International Physical Activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) study of adults aimed to measure the full range of variation in the built environment using geographic information systems (GIS) across 12 countries on 5 continents. Investigators in Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States followed a common research protocol to develop internationally comparable measures. Using detailed instructions, GIS-based measures included features such as walkability (i.e., residential density, street connectivity, mix of land uses), and access to public transit, parks, and private recreation facilities around each participant's residential address using 1-km and 500-m street network buffers.RESULTS: Eleven of 12 countries and 15 cities had objective GIS data on built environment features. We observed a 38-fold difference in median residential densities, a 5-fold difference in median intersection densities and an 18-fold difference in median park densities. Hong Kong had the highest and North Shore, New Zealand had the lowest median walkability index values, representing a difference of 9 standard deviations in GIS-measured walkability.CONCLUSIONS: Results show that comparable measures can be created across a range of cultural settings revealing profound global differences in urban form relevant to physical activity. These measures allow cities to be ranked more precisely than previously possible. The highly variable measures of urban form will be used to explain individuals' physical activity, sedentary behaviors, body mass index, and other health outcomes on an international basis. Present measures provide the ability to estimate dose-response relationships from projected changes to the built environment that would otherwise be impossible.

Resumo Limpo

ckground world health organ recommend strategi improv urban design public transport recreat facil facilit physic activ noncommunic diseas prevent increas urban global popul evid support environment associ physic activ come singl countri region limit variat urban form paper document variat compar built environ featur across countri divers regionsmethod intern physic activ environ network ipen studi adult aim measur full rang variat built environ use geograph inform system gis across countri contin investig australia belgium brazil colombia czech republ denmark china mexico new zealand spain unit kingdom unit state follow common research protocol develop intern compar measur use detail instruct gisbas measur includ featur walkabl ie residenti densiti street connect mix land use access public transit park privat recreat facil around particip residenti address use km m street network buffersresult eleven countri citi object gis data built environ featur observ fold differ median residenti densiti fold differ median intersect densiti fold differ median park densiti hong kong highest north shore new zealand lowest median walkabl index valu repres differ standard deviat gismeasur walkabilityconclus result show compar measur can creat across rang cultur set reveal profound global differ urban form relev physic activ measur allow citi rank precis previous possibl high variabl measur urban form will use explain individu physic activ sedentari behavior bodi mass index health outcom intern basi present measur provid abil estim doserespons relationship project chang built environ otherwis imposs

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