Int J Health Geogr - Defining neighborhood boundaries in studies of spatial dependence in child behavior problems.


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CKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to extend the analysis of neighborhood effects on child behavioral outcomes in two ways: (1) by examining the geographic extent of the relationship between child behavior and neighborhood physical conditions independent of standard administrative boundaries such as census tracts or block groups and (2) by examining the relationship and geographic extent of geographic peers' behavior and individual child behavior.METHODS: The study neighborhood was a low income, ethnic minority neighborhood of approximately 20,000 residents in a large city in the southwestern United States. Observational data were collected for 11,552 parcels and 1,778 face blocks in the neighborhood over a five week period. Data on child behavior problems were collected from the parents of 261 school-age children (81% African American, 14% Latino) living in the neighborhood. Spatial analysis methods were used to examine the spatial dependence of child behavior problems in relation to physical conditions in the neighborhood for areas surrounding the child's home ranging from a radius of 50 meters to a radius of 1000 meters. Likewise, the spatial dependence of child behavior problems in relation to the behavior problems of neighborhood peers was examined for areas ranging from a radius 255 meters to a radius of 600 meters around the child's home. Finally, we examined the joint influence of neighborhood physical conditions and geographic peers.RESULTS: Poor conditions of the physical environment of the neighborhood were related to more behavioral problems, and the geographic extent of the physical environment that mattered was an area with a radius between 400 and 800 meters surrounding the child's home. In addition, the average level of behavior problems of neighborhood peers within 255 meters of the child's home was also positively associated with child behavior problems. Furthermore, these effects were independent of one another.CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that using flexible geographies in the study of neighborhood effects can provide important insights into spatial influences on health outcomes. With regards to child behavioral outcomes, specifically, these findings support the importance of addressing the physical and social environment when planning community-level interventions to reduce child behavior problems.

Resumo Limpo

ckground purpos studi extend analysi neighborhood effect child behavior outcom two way examin geograph extent relationship child behavior neighborhood physic condit independ standard administr boundari census tract block group examin relationship geograph extent geograph peer behavior individu child behaviormethod studi neighborhood low incom ethnic minor neighborhood approxim resid larg citi southwestern unit state observ data collect parcel face block neighborhood five week period data child behavior problem collect parent schoolag children african american latino live neighborhood spatial analysi method use examin spatial depend child behavior problem relat physic condit neighborhood area surround child home rang radius meter radius meter likewis spatial depend child behavior problem relat behavior problem neighborhood peer examin area rang radius meter radius meter around child home final examin joint influenc neighborhood physic condit geograph peersresult poor condit physic environ neighborhood relat behavior problem geograph extent physic environ matter area radius meter surround child home addit averag level behavior problem neighborhood peer within meter child home also posit associ child behavior problem furthermor effect independ one anotherconclus find demonstr use flexibl geographi studi neighborhood effect can provid import insight spatial influenc health outcom regard child behavior outcom specif find support import address physic social environ plan communitylevel intervent reduc child behavior problem

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