Int J Health Geogr - Modeling spatial accessibility to parks: a national study.


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CKGROUND: Parks provide ideal open spaces for leisure-time physical activity and important venues to promote physical activity. The spatial configuration of parks, the number of parks and their spatial distribution across neighborhood areas or local regions, represents the basic park access potential for their residential populations. A new measure of spatial access to parks, population-weighted distance (PWD) to parks, combines the advantages of current park access approaches and incorporates the information processing theory and probability access surface model to more accurately quantify residential population's potential spatial access to parks.RESULTS: The PWD was constructed at the basic level of US census geography - blocks - using US park and population data. This new measure of population park accessibility was aggregated to census tract, county, state and national levels. On average, US residential populations are expected to travel 6.7 miles to access their local neighborhood parks. There are significant differences in the PWD to local parks among states. The District of Columbia and Connecticut have the best access to local neighborhood parks with PWD of 0.6 miles and 1.8 miles, respectively. Alaska, Montana, and Wyoming have the largest PWDs of 62.0, 37.4, and 32.8 miles, respectively. Rural states in the western and Midwestern US have lower neighborhood park access, while urban states have relatively higher park access.CONCLUSIONS: The PWD to parks provides a consistent platform for evaluating spatial equity of park access and linking with population health outcomes. It could be an informative evaluation tool for health professionals and policy makers. This new method could be applied to quantify geographic accessibility of other types of services or destinations, such as food, alcohol, and tobacco outlets.

Resumo Limpo

ckground park provid ideal open space leisuretim physic activ import venu promot physic activ spatial configur park number park spatial distribut across neighborhood area local region repres basic park access potenti residenti popul new measur spatial access park populationweight distanc pwd park combin advantag current park access approach incorpor inform process theori probabl access surfac model accur quantifi residenti popul potenti spatial access parksresult pwd construct basic level us census geographi block use us park popul data new measur popul park access aggreg census tract counti state nation level averag us residenti popul expect travel mile access local neighborhood park signific differ pwd local park among state district columbia connecticut best access local neighborhood park pwd mile mile respect alaska montana wyom largest pwds mile respect rural state western midwestern us lower neighborhood park access urban state relat higher park accessconclus pwd park provid consist platform evalu spatial equiti park access link popul health outcom inform evalu tool health profession polici maker new method appli quantifi geograph access type servic destin food alcohol tobacco outlet

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