Int J Health Geogr - How well do modelled routes to school record the environments children are exposed to? A cross-sectional comparison of GIS-modelled and GPS-measured routes to school.


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CKGROUND: The school journey may make an important contribution to children's physical activity and provide exposure to food and physical activity environments. Typically, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used to model assumed routes to school in studies, but these may differ from those actually chosen. We aimed to identify the characteristics of children and their environments that make the modelled route more or less representative of that actually taken. We compared modelled GIS routes and actual Global Positioning Systems (GPS) measured routes in a free-living sample of children using varying travel modes.METHODS: Participants were 175 13-14 yr old children taking part in the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) study who wore GPS units for up to 7 days. Actual routes to/from school were extracted from GPS data, and shortest routes between home and school along a road network were modelled in a GIS. Differences between them were assessed according to length, percentage overlap, and food outlet exposure using multilevel regression models.RESULTS: GIS routes underestimated route length by 21.0% overall, ranging from 6.1% among walkers to 23.2% for bus users. Among pedestrians food outlet exposure was overestimated by GIS routes by 25.4%. Certain characteristics of children and their neighbourhoods that improved the concordance between GIS and GPS route length and overlap were identified. Living in a village raised the odds of increased differences in length (odds ratio (OR) 3.36 (1.32-8.58)), while attending a more urban school raised the odds of increased percentage overlap (OR 3.98 (1.49-10.63)). However none were found for food outlet exposure. Journeys home from school increased the difference between GIS and GPS routes in terms of food outlet exposure, and this measure showed considerable within-person variation.CONCLUSIONS: GIS modelled routes between home and school were not truly representative of accurate GPS measured exposure to obesogenic environments, particularly for pedestrians. While route length may be fairly well described, especially for urban populations, those living close to school, and those travelling by foot, the additional expense of acquiring GPS data seems important when assessing exposure to route environments.

Resumo Limpo

ckground school journey may make import contribut children physic activ provid exposur food physic activ environ typic geograph inform system gis use model assum rout school studi may differ actual chosen aim identifi characterist children environ make model rout less repres actual taken compar model gis rout actual global posit system gps measur rout freeliv sampl children use vari travel modesmethod particip yr old children take part sport physic activ eat behaviour environment determin young peopl speedi studi wore gps unit day actual rout tofrom school extract gps data shortest rout home school along road network model gis differ assess accord length percentag overlap food outlet exposur use multilevel regress modelsresult gis rout underestim rout length overal rang among walker bus user among pedestrian food outlet exposur overestim gis rout certain characterist children neighbourhood improv concord gis gps rout length overlap identifi live villag rais odd increas differ length odd ratio attend urban school rais odd increas percentag overlap howev none found food outlet exposur journey home school increas differ gis gps rout term food outlet exposur measur show consider withinperson variationconclus gis model rout home school truli repres accur gps measur exposur obesogen environ particular pedestrian rout length may fair well describ especi urban popul live close school travel foot addit expens acquir gps data seem import assess exposur rout environ

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