Int J Health Geogr - Automated surveillance of 911 call data for detection of possible water contamination incidents.

Tópicos

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Resumo

CKGROUND: Drinking water contamination, with the capability to affect large populations, poses a significant risk to public health. In recent water contamination events, the impact of contamination on public health appeared in data streams monitoring health-seeking behavior. While public health surveillance has traditionally focused on the detection of pathogens, developing methods for detection of illness from fast-acting chemicals has not been an emphasis.METHODS: An automated surveillance system was implemented for Cincinnati's drinking water contamination warning system to monitor health-related 911 calls in the city of Cincinnati. Incident codes indicative of possible water contamination were filtered from all 911 calls for analysis. The 911 surveillance system uses a space-time scan statistic to detect potential water contamination incidents. The frequency and characteristics of the 911 alarms over a 2.5 year period were studied.RESULTS: During the evaluation, 85 alarms occurred, although most occurred prior to the implementation of an additional alerting constraint in May 2009. Data were available for analysis approximately 48 minutes after calls indicating alarms may be generated 1-2 hours after a rapid increase in call volume. Most alerts occurred in areas of high population density. The average alarm area was 9.22 square kilometers. The average number of cases in an alarm was nine calls.CONCLUSIONS: The 911 surveillance system provides timely notification of possible public health events, but did have limitations. While the alarms contained incident codes and location of the caller, additional information such as medical status was not available to assist validating the cause of the alarm. Furthermore, users indicated that a better understanding of 911 system functionality is necessary to understand how it would behave in an actual water contamination event.

Resumo Limpo

ckground drink water contamin capabl affect larg popul pose signific risk public health recent water contamin event impact contamin public health appear data stream monitor healthseek behavior public health surveil tradit focus detect pathogen develop method detect ill fastact chemic emphasismethod autom surveil system implement cincinnati drink water contamin warn system monitor healthrel call citi cincinnati incid code indic possibl water contamin filter call analysi surveil system use spacetim scan statist detect potenti water contamin incid frequenc characterist alarm year period studiedresult evalu alarm occur although occur prior implement addit alert constraint may data avail analysi approxim minut call indic alarm may generat hour rapid increas call volum alert occur area high popul densiti averag alarm area squar kilomet averag number case alarm nine callsconclus surveil system provid time notif possibl public health event limit alarm contain incid code locat caller addit inform medic status avail assist valid caus alarm furthermor user indic better understand system function necessari understand behav actual water contamin event

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