Int J Health Geogr - Associations between street connectivity and active transportation.


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CKGROUND: Past studies of associations between measures of the built environment, particularly street connectivity, and active transportation (AT) or leisure walking/bicycling have largely failed to account for spatial autocorrelation of connectivity variables and have seldom examined both the propensity for AT and its duration in a coherent fashion. Such efforts could improve our understanding of the spatial and behavioral aspects of AT. We analyzed spatially identified data from Los Angeles and San Diego Counties collected as part of the 2001 California Health Interview Survey.RESULTS: Principal components analysis indicated that ~85% of the variance in nine measures of street connectivity are accounted for by two components representing buffers with short blocks and dense nodes (PRIN1) or buffers with longer blocks that still maintain a grid like structure (PRIN2). PRIN1 and PRIN2 were positively associated with active transportation (AT) after adjustment for diverse demographic and health related variables. Propensity and duration of AT were correlated in both Los Angeles (r = 0.14) and San Diego (r = 0.49) at the zip code level. Multivariate analysis could account for the correlation between the two outcomes.After controlling for demography, measures of the built environment and other factors, no spatial autocorrelation remained for propensity to report AT (i.e., report of AT appeared to be independent among neighborhood residents). However, very localized correlation was evident in duration of AT, particularly in San Diego, where the variance of duration, after accounting for spatial autocorrelation, was 5% smaller within small neighborhoods (approximately 0.01 square latitude/longitude degrees = 0.6 mile diameter) compared to within larger zip code areas. Thus a finer spatial scale of analysis seems to be more appropriate for explaining variation in connectivity and AT.CONCLUSIONS: Joint analysis of the propensity and duration of AT behavior and an explicitly geographic approach can strengthen studies of the built environment and physical activity (PA), specifically AT. More rigorous analytical work on cross-sectional data, such as in the present study, continues to support the need for experimental and longitudinal study designs including the analysis of natural experiments to evaluate the utility of environmental interventions aimed at increasing PA.

Resumo Limpo

ckground past studi associ measur built environ particular street connect activ transport leisur walkingbicycl larg fail account spatial autocorrel connect variabl seldom examin propens durat coher fashion effort improv understand spatial behavior aspect analyz spatial identifi data los angel san diego counti collect part california health interview surveyresult princip compon analysi indic varianc nine measur street connect account two compon repres buffer short block dens node prin buffer longer block still maintain grid like structur prin prin prin posit associ activ transport adjust divers demograph health relat variabl propens durat correl los angel r san diego r zip code level multivari analysi account correl two outcomesaft control demographi measur built environ factor spatial autocorrel remain propens report ie report appear independ among neighborhood resid howev local correl evid durat particular san diego varianc durat account spatial autocorrel smaller within small neighborhood approxim squar latitudelongitud degre mile diamet compar within larger zip code area thus finer spatial scale analysi seem appropri explain variat connect atconclus joint analysi propens durat behavior explicit geograph approach can strengthen studi built environ physic activ pa specif rigor analyt work crosssect data present studi continu support need experiment longitudin studi design includ analysi natur experi evalu util environment intervent aim increas pa

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